A Little Linux Help

Below are a few How To’s and Commands I have found to make Linux do things I want done. Use these at your own risk, though they are correct as far as I am aware. I found these in the Internet nooks and crannies, created and posted by more skilled people than myself.

Clean and Manage EFI Partition

CUPS URL

DD: copy ISO to USB

Dmesg

Grub Install Failure During Install

LSPCI

Place App on Plank Dock

Remove Exiv Data from Pictures

Run Live Distro in RAM

Samba Not Working

Snap Packages

Superblock last mount time is in the future

UNRAR

Verify an ISO

Which Port is my USB in

Zoom Dependencies

 

Clean and Manage EFI Partition:

http://manpages.ubuntu.com/manpages/trusty/man8/efibootmgr.8.html

Cups: http://localhost:631/

DD: Best ISO to USB copy: sudo dd if=Downloads/mynewestdistro.iso of=/dev/sdx status=”progress”

or if you are in the correct directory:

sudo dd if=mynewestdistro.iso of=/dev/sdx status=”progress”

dmesg

“The ‘dmesg‘ command displays the messages from the kernel ring buffer. ”

https://www.tecmint.com/dmesg-commands/  for more information

https://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man1/dmesg.1.html  for in depth usage

Grub Install failure:

There are a few Distributions out there that run perfectly well in a live environment. Internet connects okay. When you attempt an Install, they install without issue until it is time to install Grub. Then you receive an Install Failure because Grub will not install.

I came across this tip which works with at least three different distributions Install program. Reboot and Do Not Connect to the Internet. Redo the partitions and install. The Install should complete this time.

lspci

lspci is a utility for displaying information about PCI buses in the system and devices connected to them.

https://linux.die.net/man/8/lspci for more

Place App on Plank Dock:

Here is how you may have google-chrome on your Plank dock. You need to be root for this. Create a file and add the following lines:

Add the text below:

[PlankDockItemPreferences]

Launcher=file:///usr/share/applications/google-chrome.desktop

Save your file with the name: google-chrome.dockitem in your plank/dock1 directory

~~~~

Here is how you may have google-chrome on your dock. Follow the steps in the post above changing as needed.

Save your file with the name: google-chrome.dockitem in your plank/dock1 directory.

Add the text below:

[PlankDockItemPreferences]

Launcher=file:///usr/share/applications/google-chrome.desktop

Remove line across bottom of screen when using Plank:

De-select the xfce compositor setting for placing shadows under docks.

Remove exiv references from pictures:

https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/13251/batch-delete-exif-info

The EXIF handling tool exiv2 has a command for deleting EXIF data:

exiv2 rm image.jpg

removes all EXIF data from the image.

To remove EXIF data from all JPEG images in the current directory, use

exiv2 rm *.jpg

Remove EXIF data from all JPEG images in the current directory, and all subdirectories of it recursively, use:

find . -type f -iname ‘*.jpg’ | xargs exiv2 rm

It is a good idea to test the command before.

To see which files are found:

find . -type f -iname ‘*.jpg’ | less

To see which commands will be executed:

find . -type f -iname ‘*.jpg’ | xargs echo exiv2 rm | less

Note the echo inserted before exiv2 to print the command, instead of running it.

Run Live Distro in RAM:

Create a bootable live USB stick instead of using a live DVD disk. If you’ve got plenty of RAM, use the ‘toram’ cheatcode on boot and it will load the ISO to ram and give you much much better performance that a live DVD. (The cheatcode trick works from a live DVD as well.)

Samba Network needs:

When you try to reach the local network using Thunar (in Debian), you

won’t. You need to install: gvfs-backends.

This one frustrated me for a while as in other Distro’s I could sometime

get to smb://tp-share (hit and miss), but never in Debian itself.

Also fwiw, if you run a firewall it has to be modified as in GUFW. Since

I rarely need access to the network, I turn GUFW off for a few minutes,

then when done I turn it on again. What ports to allow in GUFW is still a

mystery to me.

Snaps

What You Need to Know About Snaps on Ubuntu 20.04

df -t squashfs – list SquashFS file systems mounted

snap list – list snaps installed

Superblock last mount time is in the future

$ timedatectl status

Local time: Wed 2020-09-30 13:32:57 MDT

Universal time: Wed 2020-09-30 19:32:57 UTC

RTC time: Wed 2020-09-30 13:32:56

Time zone: America/Denver (MDT, -0600)

System clock synchronized: no

NTP service: active

RTC in local TZ: yes

“Warning: The system is configured to read the RTC time in the local time zone. This mode cannot be fully supported. It will create various problems with time zone changes and daylight saving time adjustments. The RTC time is never updated, it relies on external facilities to maintain it. If at all possible, use RTC in UTC by calling” ‘timedatectl set-local-rtc 0’.

$ sudo timedatectl set-local-rtc 0

Verify ISO:

The download page is here.

https://sourceforge.net/projects/lxle/files/Final/OS/16.04.4-32/

lxle_16.04.4_32.iso   1,604,321,280 bytes

The listed MD5 (a file next to the main download),

is the same as the copy I got.

266b8a4b5349c10313d3408946cc4d11  lxle_16.04.4_32.iso

And this is the calculated SHA1 I got from my copy.

SHA1: ED5F58291C4391B03037A216D606128CC1D2C802

Typical utilities you could use could include

md5sum and sha1sum. And hashdeep can do various calcs too.

md5sum lxle_16.04.4_32.iso

sha1sum lxle_16.04.4_32.iso

hashdeep -c SHA1 lxle_16.04.4_32.iso

With any hash/checksum tool, verify the tool first against available known values and files. I’ve discovered non-standard behavior a couple of times over the years, and you should use your own notion of due diligence before trusting them.

UNRAR:

Extract files with the full path with the command “unrar x file.rar”. This is probably what you want.

Dump all files(excluding folders) into the current directory with the command “unrar e file.rar”.

List the files inside a rar archive with the command “unrar l file.rar”.

Test the integrity of an archive with the command “unrar t file.rar”.

Where is my USB?: lsblk or for just USB:  lsblk | grep sd

Zoom Dependencies July 2020:

libglib2.0-0  libgstreamer-plugins-base0.10-0libxcb-shape0  libxcb-shm0

libxcb-xfixes0  libxcb-randr0  libxcb-image0  libfontconfig1  libgl1-mesa-glx

libxi6  libsm6  libxrender1  libpulse0  libxcomposite1  libxslt1.1

libsqlite3-0  libxcb-keysyms1  libxcb-xtest0